Randomised controlled trials

Criteria and methods for data extraction

This section is an overview of papers reporting randomised, placebo-controlled, trials (RCTs) of homeopathic treatment that have been published in the peer-reviewed literature in any country and in any language from 1950 to 2014 inclusive. Any form of homeopathy (individualised or non-individualised) was eligible for inclusion. For the present overview we reflect only those RCTs that have been accepted for formal systematic review and potential meta-analysis in the grant funded ongoing programme of systematic reviews. It is founded on our thorough literature review of homeopathy RCTs and on the associated papers reporting the findings. Trials in which the control group was not placebo have been put aside for full analysis at a later date.

Note on statistical significance
A minority of RCTs in homeopathy have defined a relevant threshold for clinical importance, with consequent absence of prospective power calculation. On this web-page, the original authors’ positive or negative findings have therefore been described consistently in statistical terms only.

A statistically conclusive RCT result requires that the 95% confidence interval of the mean difference in outcome measure did not include 0 (or P<0.05); a statistically non-significant trial result is one in which the confidence interval included 0 (or P>0.05). An RCT reporting statistically significant findings is labelled either ‘positive’ or ‘negative’, depending on whether the homeopathy group was superior or inferior to placebo in at least one per three main outcomes presented in the paper. Statistically non-significant trials are described as ‘non-conclusive’.

Overall summary of trial findings, 1950–2014

During this period, there were 104 eligible RCT papers published in homeopathy. Only 32 RCTs (31%) of the 104 papers have studied individualised homeopathy; each of the other 72 papers (69%) has studied non-individualised homeopathy (i.e. selected a single homeopathic medicine for investigation).

Of the 104 papers in total, 43 (41%) reported positive findings; 5 (5%) were negative; 56 (54%) were non-conclusive.

The 104 papers represent placebo-controlled research in a total of 61 different medical conditions. In 22 of those conditions, there has been replicated research (i.e. there have been two or more trials); for each of the other 39 conditions there are singleton RCTs. Though some account is taken here of the intrinsic quality of the research, this important matter of quality is reflected prominently in the grant-funded programme of systematic reviews.

Direction of RCT evidence per medical condition

A score of +1 is given to a positive RCT0 to a non-conclusive RCT–1 to a negative RCT.

For replicated research, the overall direction of RCT evidence for each medical condition relates to the sum of the scores derived from the RCT research for that particular condition:

Sum of +3 or more: Clearly positive direction of evidence
Sum of +2: Tentatively positive direction of evidence
Sum of +1 or 0 or –1: Non-conclusive direction of evidence
Sum of –2: Tentatively negative direction of evidence
Sum of –3 or less: Clearly negative direction of evidence.

This method of summarising direction of evidence in sets of RCTs is similar in essence to that adopted previously [Ernst E, Pittler MH, Wider B (2006). The Desktop Guide to Complementary and Alternative Medicine; an evidence-based approach. Mosby Elsevier]. It is not meant as a replacement for formal assessment procedures, such as systematic review and/or meta-analysis, which determine a trial’s intrinsic quality and/or the size of treatment effect for a specified outcome measure.

The summary method is intended to give an overall impression about the current nature of the placebo-controlled RCT evidence per medical condition, pending formal systematic review overall. Such formal review will also take account of whether evidence has been reported by independent research groups.

As shown in the detailed reference list below, there is:

Clearly positive direction of RCT evidence in 2 conditions:

Seasonal allergic rhinitis 1-8
Sinusitis 9-12

Tentatively positive direction of RCT evidence in 26 conditions (including singleton trials):

Allergic skin reaction 13
Arsenic toxicity 14-17
Brain injury 18
Bronchitis 19
Childhood diarrhoea 20-23
Chronic fatigue syndrome 24
Female infertility 25, 26
Fibromyalgia 27
Influenza 28, 29
Insomnia 30-32
Menopausal syndrome 33
Otitis media (acute) 34
Perennial allergic rhinitis 35
Plantar fasciitis 36
Postpartum bleeding 37
Postpartum lactation 38
Premenstrual syndrome 39
Psoriasis 40
Radiodermatitis 41
Sepsis 42
Snoring 43
Stomatitis 44
Tonsillitis 45
Tracheal secretions 46
Uraemic pruritus 47
Varicose veins 48

Non-conclusive direction of RCT evidence in 31 conditions (including singleton trials):

Allergic asthma 49, 50
Adenoid 51
ADHD 52, 53
Anxiety 54-56
Body weight loss 57
Cerebral palsy 58
Childhood Asthma 59, 60
Cholera 61
Dengue fever symptoms 62
Depression 63
Eczema 64, 65
Headache 66
HIV 67
Hypertension 68, 69
Induction of labour 70
Irritable bowel syndrome 71, 72
Lead poisoning 73
Menopause post breast cancer 74, 75
Migraine 76, 77
Minor burns 78
Mucositis 79
Muscle Soreness 80-82
Post-Operative bleeding/bruising 83-85
Post-Operative pain/swelling 86-91
Postpartum pain 92
Proctocolitis 93
Rheumatoid arthritis 94-96
Tuberculosis 97
URTI 98, 99
Warts 100, 101
Withdrawal of benzodiazepines 102

Tentatively negative direction of RCT evidence in 2 conditions (singleton trials):

Post-operative analgesic intake 103
Post-operative ileus 104


1. Aabel S, Laerum E, Dølvik S, Djupesland P (2000). Is homeopathic 'immunotherapy' effective? A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with the isopathic remedy Betula 30c for patients with birch pollen allergy. British Homeopathic Journal; 89:161–168.

2. Aabel S (2000). No beneficial effect of isopathic prophylactic treatment for birch pollen allergy during a low-pollen season: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of homeopathic Betula 30c. British Homeopathic Journal; 89:169–173.

3. Aabel S (2001). Prophylactic and acute treatment with the homeopathic medicine Betula 30c for birch pollen allergy: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of consistency of VAS responses. British Homeopathic Journal; 90:73–78.

4 .Kim LS, Riedlinger JE, Baldwin CM, Hilli L, Khalsa SV, Messer SA, Waters RF (2005). Treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis using homeopathic preparation of common allergens in the southwest region of the US: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Annals of Pharmacotherapy; 39:617–624.

5. Reilly DT, Taylor MA, McSharry C, Aitchison T (1986). Is homeopathy a placebo response? Controlled trial of homeopathic potency, with pollen in hayfever as model. Lancet; ii:881–885.

6. Wiesenauer M, Gaus W, Häussler S (1990). Behandlung der Pollinoisis mit Galphimia glauca. Eine Doppelblindstudie unter Praxisbedingungen [Treatment of pollinosis with the homeopathic preparation Galphimia glauca. A double-blind trial in clinical practice]. Allergologie; 13:359–363.

7. Wiesenauer M, Gaus W (1985). Double-blind trial comparing the effectiveness of the homoeopathic preparation Galphimia potentization D6, Galphimia dilution 10?6 and placebo on pollinosis. Arzneimittel Forschung; 35:1745–1747.

8. Wiesenauer M, Lüdtke R (1995). The treatment of pollinosis with Galphimia glauca D4 - a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial. Phytomedicine; 2: 3-6.

9. Friese K-H, Zabalotnyi DI (2007). Homöopathie bei akuter Rhinosinusitis. Eine doppelblinde, placebokontrollierte Studie belegt die Wirksamkeit und Verträglichkeit eines homöopathischen Kombinations-arzneimittels [Homeopathy in acute rhinosinusitis. A double-blind, placebo controlled study shows the efficiency and tolerability of a homeopathic combination remedy]. HNO; 55:271–277.

10. Weiser M, Clasen B (1994). Randomisierte plazebokontrolierte Doppelblindstudie zur Untersuchung der klinische Wirksamkeit der homöopathischen Euphorbium compositum-Nasentropfen S bei chronischer Sinusitis [Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of the clinical efficacy of the homeopathic Euphorbium compositum-S nasal spray in cases of chronic sinusitis]. Forschende Komplementärmedizin; 1:251–259.

11. Zabolotnyi DI, Kneis KC, Richardson A, Rettenberger R, Heger M, Kaszkin-Bettag M, Heger PW (2007). Efficacy of a complex homeopathic medication (Sinfrontal) in patients with acute maxillary sinusitis: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial. Explore (NY); 3:98–109.

12. Wiesenauer M, Gaus W, Bohnacker U, Häussler S (1989). Wirksamkeitsprüfung von homöopathische Kombinationspräparaten bei Sinusitis. Ergebnisse einer randomisierten Doppelblindstudie unter Praxisbedingungen [Efficiency of homeopathic preparation combinations in sinusitis. Results of a randomized double blind study with general practitioners]. Arzneimittel Forschung; 39:620-625.

13. Naidoo P, Pellow J (2013). A randomized placebo-controlled pilot study of Cat saliva 9cH and Histaminum 9cH in cat allergic adults. Homeopathy; 102: 123-129.

14. Belon P, Banerjee A, Karmakar SR, Biswas SJ, Choudhury SC, Banerjee P, Das JK, Pathak S, Guha B, Paul S, Bhattacharjee N, Khuda-Bukhsh AR (2007). Homeopathic remedy for arsenic toxicity? Evidence-based findings from a randomized placebo-controlled double blind human trial. Science of the Total Environment; 384:141-50.

15. Khuda-Bukhsh AR, Pathak S, Guha B, Karmakar SR, Das JK, Banerjee P, Biswas SJ, Mukherjee P, Bhattacharjee N, Choudhury SC, Banerjee A, Bhadra S, Mallick P, Chakrabarti J, Mandal B (2005). Can homeopathic arsenic remedy combat arsenic poisoning in humans exposed to groundwater arsenic contamination? A preliminary report on first human trial. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine; 2:537-548.

16. Belon P, Banerjee P, Choudhury SC, Banerjee A, Biswas SJ, Karmakar SR, Pathak S, Guha B, Chatterjee S, Bhattacharjee N, Das JK, Khuda-Bukhsh AR (2006). Can administration of potentized homeopathic remedy, Arsenicum album, alter antinuclear antibody (ANA) titre in people living in high-risk arsenic contaminated areas? I. A correlation with certain hematological parameters. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine; 3:99-107.

17. Khuda-Bukhsh AR, Banerjee A, Biswas SJ, Karmakar SR, Banerjee P, Pathak S, Guha B, Haque S, Das D, De A, Das D, Boujedaini N (2011a). An initial report on the efficacy of a millesimal potency Arsenicum Album LM 0/3 in ameliorating arsenic toxicity in humans living in a high-risk arsenic village. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine / Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao; 9: 596-604.

18. Chapman EH, Weintraub RJ, Milburn MA, Pirozzi TO, Woo E (1999). Homeopathic treatment of mild traumatic brain injury: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation; 14: 521–542.

19. Diefenbach M, Schilken J, Steiner G, Becker HJ (1997). Homöopathische Therapie bei Erkrankungen der Atemwege. Auswertung einer klinischen Studie bei 258 Patienten [Homeopathic therapy in respiratory tract diseases. Evaluation of a clinical study in 258 patients]. Zeitschrift für Allgemeinmedizin; 73:308–314.

20. Jacobs J, Jimenez LM, Gloyds SS, Gale JL, Crothers D (1994). Treatment of acute childhood diarrhea with homeopathic medicine; a randomized clinical trial in Nicaragua. Pediatrics; 93:719–725.

21. Jacobs J, Jimenez LM, Malthouse S, Chapman E, Crothers D, Masuk M, Jonas WB (2000). Homeopathic treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea: results from a clinical trial in Nepal. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine; 6:131–139.

22. Jacobs J, Jiminez LM, Gloyds SS, Casares FE, Gaitan MP, Crothers D (1993). Homoeopathic treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea. A randomized clinical trial in Nicaragua. British Homoeopathic Journal; 82:83–86.

23. Jacobs J, Guthrie BL, Montes GA, Jacobs LE, Mickey-Colman N, Wilson AR, DiGiacomo R (2006). Homeopathic combination remedy in the treatment of acute childhood diarrhea in Honduras. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine; 12:723–732.

24. Weatherley-Jones E, Nicholl JP, Thomas KJ, Parry GJ, McKendrick MW, Green ST, Stanley PJ, Lynch SP (2004). A randomized, controlled, triple-blind trial of the efficacy of homeopathic treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Psychosomatic Research; 56:189–197.

25. Bergmann J, Luft B, Boehmann S, Runnebaum B, Gerhard I (2000). Die Wirksamkeit des Komplexmittels Phyto-Hypophyson® L bei weiblicher, hormonell bedingter Sterilität. Eine randomisierte, plazebokontrollierte, klinische Doppelblindstudie [The efficacy of the complex medication Phyto-Hypophyson L in female, hormone-related sterility. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical double-blind study]. Forschende Komplementärmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde; 7:190–199.

26. Gerhard I, Pateck A, Monga B, Blank A, Gorkow C (1998). Mastodynon bei weiblicher Sterilitat. Randomisierte, plazenbokontrollierte, klinische oppelblindstudie. [Mastodynon for female infertility. Randomised, placebo controlled, clinical double-blind study]. Forschende Komplementärmedizin; 5:272-278.

27. Bell I, Lewis D, Brooks A, Schwartz G, Lewis S, Walsh B, Baldwin C (2004). Improved clinical status in fibromyalgia patients treated with individualized homeopathic remedies versus placebo. Rheumatology; 43:577–582.

28. Ferley JP, Zmirou D, D’Adhemar D, Balducci F (1989). A controlled evaluation of a homoeopathic preparation in the treatment of influenza like syndromes. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology; 27:329–335.

29. Papp R, Schuback G, Beck E, Burkard G, Bengel J, Lehrl S, Belon P (1998). Oscillococcinum® in patients with influenza-like syndromes: a placebo-controlled double-blind evaluation. British Homoeopathic Journal; 87:69–76.

30. Kolia-Adam N, Solomon E, Bond J, Deroukakis M (2008). The efficacy of Coffea cruda on insomnia: a double blind trial. Simillimum; 21: 91-99.

31. Naudé DF, Couchman IMS, Maharaj A (2010). Chronic primary insomnia: efficacy of homeopathic simillimum. Homeopathy; 99:63–68. [Published erratum: Homeopathy 2010; 99: 151]

32. Harrison CC, Solomon EM, Pellow J (2013). The effect of a homeopathic complex on psychophysiological onset insomnia in males: a randomized pilot study. Altern Ther Health Med;19(5):38-43.

33. Colau JC, Vincent S, Marijnen P, Allaert FA (2012). Efficacy of a non-hormonal treatment, BRN-01, on menopausal hot flashes: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Drugs R D;12(3):107-119.

34. Jacobs J, Springer DA, Crothers D (2001). Homeopathic treatment of acute otitis media in children: a preliminary randomized placebo-controlled trial. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal; 20:177–183.

35. Taylor MA, Reilly D, Llewellyn-Jones RH, McSharry C, Aitchison TC (2000). Randomised controlled trial of homoeopathy versus placebo in perennial allergic rhinitis with overview of four trial series. British Medical Journal; 321:471–476.

36. Clark J, Percivall A (2000). A preliminary investigation into the effectiveness of the homeopathic remedy, Ruta graveolens, in the treatment of pain in plantar fasciitis. British Journal of Podiatry; 3:81–85.

37. Oberbaum M, Galoyan N, Lerner-Geva L, Singer SR, Grisaru S, Shashar D, Samueloff A (2005). The effect of the homeopathic remedies Arnica and Bellis perennis on mild postpartum bleeding – a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study – preliminary results. Complementary Therapies in Medicine; 13:87–90.

38. Berrebi A, Parant O, Ferval F, Thene M, Ayoubi JM, Connan L, Belon P (2001). Traitement de la douleur de la montée laiteuse non souhaitée par homéopathie dans le postpartum immédiat [Treatment of pain due to unwanted lactation with a homeopathic preparation given in the immediate post-partum period]. Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction; 30:353–357.

39. Yakir M, Kreitler S, Brzezinski A, Vithoulkas G, Oberbaum M, Bentwich Z (2001). Effects of homeopathic treatment in women with premenstrual syndrome: a pilot study. British Homeopathic Journal; 90:148–153.

40. Bernstein S, Donsky H, Gulliver W, Hamilton D, Nobel S, Norman R (2006). Treatment of mild to moderate psoriasis with Reliéva, a Mahonia aquifolium extract - a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. American Journal of Therapeutics; 13:121-126.

41. Balzarini A, Felisi E, Martini A, De Conno F (2000). Efficacy of homeopathic treatment of skin reactions during radiotherapy for breast cancer: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. British Homeopathic Journal; 89:8–12.

42. Frass M, Linkesch M, Banyai S, Resch G, Dielacher C, Lobl T, Endler C, Haidvogl M, Muchitsch I, Schuster E (2005). Adjunctive homeopathic treatment in patients with severe sepsis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in an intensive care unit. Homeopathy; 94:75–80.

43. Lipman D, Sexton G, Schlesser J (1999). A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled evaluation of the safety and efficacy of a natural over-the-counter (OTC) medication in the management of snoring. Sleep and Breathing; 3: 53-56.

44. Oberbaum M, Yaniv I, Ben-Gal Y, Stein J, Ben-Zvi N, Freedman LS, Branski D (2001). A randomized, controlled clinical trial of the homeopathic medication Traumeel S in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced stomatitis in children undergoing stem cell transplantation. Cancer; 92:684–690.

45. Malapane E, Solomon EM, Pellow J. Efficacy of a homeopathic complex on acute viral tonsillitis. J Altern Complement Med. 2014 Nov;20(11):868-73.

46. Frass M, Dielacher C, Linkesch M, Endler C, Muchitsch I, Schuster E, Kaye A (2005). Influence of potassium dichromate on tracheal secretions in critically ill patients. Chest; 127:936–941.

47. Cavalcanti AM, Rocha LM, Carillo R Jr, Lima LU, Lugon JR (2003). Effects of homeopathic treatment on pruritus of haemodialysis patients: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Homeopathy; 92:177–181.

48. Ernst E, Saradeth T, Resch KL (1990). Complementary therapy of varicose veins – a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Phlebology; 5:157–163.

49. Reilly D, Taylor MA, Beattie NGM, Campbell JH, McSharry C, Aitchison TC, Carter R, Stevenson RD (1994). Is evidence for homeopathy reproducible? Lancet; 344:1601–1606.

50. Lewith G , Watkins AD, Hyland ME (2002). Use of ultramolecular potencies of allergen to treat asthmatic people allergic to house dust mite: double blind randomized controlled clinical trial. British Medical Journal; 324:520–523.

51. Friese K-H, Feuchter U, Möller H (1997). Die homöopathische Behandling von adenoiden Vegetationen [Homeopathic treatment of adenoid vegetations. Results of a prospective, randomized double-blind study]. HNO; 45:618–624.

52. Jacobs J, Williams A-L, Girard C, Njike VY, Katz D (2005). Homeopathy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pilot randomized-controlled trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine; 11:799–806.

53. Razlog R, Pellow J, White SJ (2012). A pilot study on the efficacy of Valeriana officinalis mother tincture and Valeriana officinalis 3x in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Health SA Gesondheid; 17; #603.

54. Baker DG, Myers SP, Howden I, Brooks L (2003). The effects of homeopathic Argentum nitricum on test anxiety. Complementary Therapies in Medicine; 11:65–71.

55. Bonne O, Shemer Y, Gorali Y, Katz M, Shalev AY (2003). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of classical homeopathy in generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry; 64:282–287.

56. McCutcheon LE (1996). Treatment of anxiety with a homeopathic remedy. Journal of Applied Nutrition; 48:2–6.

57. Schmidt JM, Ostermayr B (2002). Does a homeopathic ultramolecular dilution of Thyroidinum 30cH affect the rate of body weight reduction in fasting patients? A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial. Homeopathy; 91:197–206.

58. Sajedi F, Alizad V, Alaeddini F, Fatemi R, Mazaherinezhad A (2008). The effect of adding homeopathic treatment to rehabilitation on muscle tone of children with spastic cerebral palsy. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice; 14:33–37.

59. de Freitas LAS,
Goldenstein E, Sanna OM (1995). A relação médico-paciente indireta e o tratamento homeopático na asma infantile [The indirect patient-doctor relationship and the homeopathic treatment of childhood asthma]. Revista de Homeopatia; 60:26–31.

60. White A,
Slade P, Hunt C, Hart A, Ernst E (2003). Individualised homeopathy as an adjunct in the treatment of childhood asthma: a randomised placebo controlled trial. Thorax; 58:317–321.

61. Gaucher C,
Jeulin D, Peycru P, Amengual C (1994). A double blind randomized placebo controlled study of cholera treatment with highly diluted and succussed solutions. British Homoeopathic Journal; 83:132-134.

62. Jacobs J,
Fernandez EA, Merizalde B, Avila-Montes GA, Crothers D (2007). The use of homeopathic combination remedy for dengue fever symptoms: a pilot RCT in Honduras. Homeopathy; 96:22–26.

63. Katz T,
Fisher P, Katz A, Davidson J, Feder G (2005). The feasibility of a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial of homeopathic treatment of depression in general practice. Homeopathy; 94: 145-52.

64. Fisher P,
McCarney R, Hasford C, Vickers A (2006). Evaluation of specific and non-specific effects in homeopathy: Feasibility study for a randomised trial. Homeopathy; 95:215–222.

65. Siebenwirth J,
Lüdtke R, Remy W, Rakoski J, Borelli S, Ring J (2009). Wirksamkeit einer klassisch-homöopathischen Therapie bei atopischem Ekzem. Eine randomisierte, placebokontrollierte Doppelblindstudie [Effectiveness of classical homeopathic treatment in atopic eczema. A randomised placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial]. Forschende Komplementärmedizin; 16: 315-323.

66. Walach H,
Häusler W, Lowes T, Mussbach D, Schamell U, Springer W, Stritzl G, Haag G (1997). Classical homeopathic treatment of chronic headaches. Cephalalgia; 17:119–126.

67. Rastogi DP,
Singh VP, Singh V, Dey SK, Rao K (1999). Homeopathy in HIV infection: a trial report of double-blind placebo controlled study. British Homoeopathic Journal; 88:49–57.

68. Bignamini M, Bertoli A,
Consolandi AM, Dovera N, Saruggia M, Taino S, Tubertini A (1987). Controlled double-blind trial with Baryta carbonica 15CH versus placebo in a group of hypertensive subjects confined to bed in two old people's homes. British Homoeopathic Journal; 76:114–119.

69. Hitzenberger G,
Rehak PH (2005). Zur Wirkung eines homöopathi-schen Fertigarzneimittels auf den Blutdruck von Hypertonikern: Eine randomisierte doppelblinde kontrollierte Parallelgruppen-Vergleichsstudie [The effect of a homeopathic drug on the blood pressure of hypertensive patients: a randomized double-blind, controlled, parallel-group, comparative trial]. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift; 155:392–396.

70. Beer AM,
Heiliger F (1999). Caulophyllum D4 zur Geburtsinduktion bei vorzeitigem Blasensprung - eine Doppelblindstudie [Randomized, double-blind trial of Caulophyllum D4 for induction of labour after premature rupture of the membranes at term]. Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde; 59:431–435.

71. Rahlfs VW,
Mössinger P (1978). Asa foetida bei Colon irritabile – Doppelblindversuch [Asa foetida in the treatment of the irritable colon – a double-blind trial]. Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift; 104:140–143.

72. Rahlfs VW,
Mössinger P (1976). Zur Behandlung des Colon irritable: Ein multizentrischer plazebo-kontrollierter Doppelblindversuch in der Allgemeinen Praxis [Treatment of irritable colon: A multicenter placebo-controlled double-blind study in general practice]. Arzneimittel Forschung; 26:2230–2234.

73. Padilha RQ,
Riera R, Atallah ÁN (2011). Homeopathic Plumbum metallicum for lead poisoning: a randomized clinical trial. Homeopathy. 2011 Jul;100(3):116-121.

74. Jacobs J,
Herman P, Heron K, Olsen S, Vaughters L (2005). Homeopathy for menopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors: a preliminary randomized controlled trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine; 11:21–27.

75. Thompson EA,
Montgomery A, Douglas D, Reilly D (2005). A pilot, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of individualized homeopathy for symptoms of estrogen withdrawal in breast-cancer survivors. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine; 11:13–20.

76. Straumsheim P,
Borchgrevink C, Mowinckel P, Kierulf H, Hafslund O (2000). Homeopathic treatment of migraine: a double blind, placebo controlled trial of 68 patients. British Homeopathic Journal; 89:4–7.

77. Whitmarsh TE,
Coleston-Shields DM, Steiner TJ (1997). Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study of homoeopathic prophylaxis of migraine. Cephalalgia; 17:600–604.

78. Leaman AM,
Gorman D (1989). Cantharis in the early treatment of minor burns. Archives of Emergency Medicine; 6:259–261.

79. Sencer SF,
Zhou T, Freedman LS, Ives JA, Chen Z, Wall D, Nieder ML, Grupp SA, Yu LC, Sahdev I, Jonas WB, Wallace JD, Oberbaum M (2012). Traumeel S in preventing and treating mucositis in young patients undergoing SCT: a report of the Children's Oncology Group. Bone Marrow Transplant;47(11):1409-1414.

80. Tveiten D,
Bruseth S, Borchgrevink CF, Norseth J (1998). Effects of the homoeopathic remedy Arnica D30 on marathon runners: a randomized, double-blind study during the 1995 Oslo Marathon. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 6:71–74.

81. Tveiten D,
Bruseth S, Borchgrevink CF, Løhne K (1991). Effekt av Arnica D 30 ved hard fysisk anstrengelse. En doppeltblind randomisert undersøkelse under Oslo maraton 1990 [Effect of Arnica D30 on hard physical exertion. A double-blind randomized trial during the 1990 Oslo Marathon]. Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening, 111:3630–3631.

82. Vickers AJ,
Fisher P, Smith C, Wyllie SE, Rees R (1998). Homeopathic Arnica 30X is ineffective for muscle soreness after long-distance running: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Journal of Pain, 14:227–231.

83. Cornu C,
Joseph P, Gaillard S, Bauer C, Vedrinne C, Bissery A, Melot G, Bossard N, Belon P, Lehot J-J (2010). No effect of a homoeopathic combination of Arnica montana and Bryonia alba on bleeding, inflammation, and ischaemia after aortic valve surgery. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology; 69:136-142.

84. Seeley BM,
Denton AB, Ahn MS, Maas CS (2006). Effect of homeopathic Arnica montana on bruising in face-lifts: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery; 8:54–59.

85. Kotlus BS,
Heringer DM, Dryden RM (2010). Evaluation of homeopathic arnica montana for ecchymosis after upper blepharoplasty: A placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study. Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery; 26:395-397.

86. Robertson A,
Suryanarayanan R, Banerjee A (2007). Homeopathic Arnica montana for post-tonsillectomy analgesia: a randomised placebo control trial. Homeopathy; 96:17–21.

87. Hart O,
Mullee MA, Lewith G, Miller J (1997). Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of homoeopathic arnica C30 for pain and infection after total abdominal hysterectomy. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine; 90:73–78.

88. Singer SR,
Amit-Kohn M, Weiss S, Rosenblum J, Maoz G, Samuels N, Lukasiewicz E, Freedman L, Paltiel O, Itzchaki M, Niska M, Oberbaum M (2010). Traumeel S for pain relief following hallux valgus surgery: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Clinical Pharmacology; 10: 9.

89. Wolf M,
Tamaschke C, Mayer W, Heger M (2003). Wirksamkeit von Arnica bei Varizenoperation: Ergebnisse einer randomisierten, doppelblinden, Placebo-kontrollierten Pilot-Studie [Efficacy of Arnica in varicose vein surgery: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study]. Forschende Komplementärmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde; 10:242–247.

90. Kaziro GS (1984).
Metronidazole (Flagyl) and Arnica montana in the prevention of post-surgical complications, a comparative placebo controlled clinical trial. British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery; 22:42–49.

91. Stevinson C,
Devaraj VS, Fountain-Barber A, Hawkins S, Ernst E (2003). Homeopathic arnica for prevention of pain and bruising: randomized placebo-controlled trial in hand surgery. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine; 96:60–65.

92. Hofmeyr GJ,
Piccioni V, Blauhof P (1990). Postpartum homoeopathic Arnica montana: a potency-finding pilot study. British Journal of Clinical Practice; 44:619–621.

93. Jansen GRHJ,
van der Veer ALJ, Hagenaars J, van der Juy A (1992). Lessons learnt from an unsuccessful clinical trial of homoeopathy. Results of a small-scale, double-blind trial in proctocolitis. British Homoeopathic Journal; 81:132–138.

94. Andrade L,
Ferraz MB, Atra E, Castro A, Silva MSM (1991). A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of homoeopathy in rheumatoid arthritis. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology; 20:204–208.

95. Brien S,
Lachance L, Prescott P, McDermott C, Lewith G (2011). Homeopathy has clinical benefits in rheumatoid arthritis patients that are attributable to the consultation process but not the homeopathic remedy: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Rheumatology (Oxford); 50: 1070-1082.

96. Wiesenauer M,
Gaus W (1991). Wirksamkeitsnachweis eines Homöopathikums bei chronischer Polyarthritis. Eine randomisierte Doppelblindstudie bei nieder-gelassenen Ärzten [A randomized double-blind trial on the efficacy of a homeopathic drug for rheumatoid arthritis]. Aktuelle Rheumatologie; 16:1–21.

97. Chand KS,
Manchanda RK, Mittal R, Batra S, Banavaliker JN, De I. Homeopathic treatment in addition to standard care in multi drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. Homeopathy. 2014 Apr;103(2):97-107.

98. de Lange de Klerk ESM,
Blommers J, Kuik DJ, Bezemer PD, Feenstra L (1994). Effects of homoeopathic medicines on daily burden of symptoms in children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. British Medical Journal; 309:1329–1332.

99. Steinsbekk A,
Bentzen N, Fønnebø V, Lewith G (2005). Self treatment with one of three self selected, ultramolecular homeopathic medicines for the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections in children. A double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology; 59:447–455.

100. Kainz JT,
Kozel G, Haidvogl M, Smolle J (1996). Homoeopathic versus placebo therapy of children with warts on the hands: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Dermatology; 193:318–320.

101. Labrecque M,
Audet D, Latulippe LG, Drouin J (1992). Homoeopathic treatment of plantar warts. Canadian Medical Association Journal; 146:1749–1753.

102. Cialdella P,
Boissel JP, Belon P (2001). Spécialités homéopathiques en substitution de benzodiazépines: étude en double-insu vs. placebo [Complex homeopathic medicines as substitutes for benzodiazepines: double-blind study vs. placebo]. Thérapie; 56:397–402.

103. Paris A,
Gonnet N, Chaussard C, Belon P, Rocourt F, Saragaglia D, Cracowski JL (2008). Effect of homeopathy on analgesic intake following knee ligament reconstruction: a phase III monocentre randomized placebo controlled study. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology; 65:180–187. 

104. GRECHO (Groupe de Recherches et d'Essais Cliniques en Homéopathie), U292 INSERM, ARC (Association de Recherche en Chirurgie), GREPA (Groupe de Recherche et d’Étude de la Paroi Abdominal) (1989). Evaluation de deux produits homéopathiques sur la reprise du transit après chirurgie digestive - Un essai contrôlé multicentrique [Evaluation of the effects of two homeopathic preparations on the resumption of intestinal peristalsis after digestive tract surgery – A multicentre controlled trial]. Presse Médicale; 18:59-62.